#篇名摘要出處資訊
1 NOVEL FOOD BETWEEN MARKET NEEDS, FOOD SAFETY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE COMPLEX REGULATION OF TRADITIONAL FOOD COMING FROM THIRD COUNTRIES

The controversial inclusion of traditional food coming from Third Countries in the category of Novel Food, as defined by EU Regulation 258/97, caused a severe economic, social as well as environmental impact, especially for small producers in Developing Countries. The paper aims at analyzing these criticalities and the reactions of Third States, also at the WTO level, then focusing on the solutions included in the current EU Reg. 2015/2283: the European legislator has adopted a specific and simplified authorization procedure for this particular Novel Food's category in order to assess a correct and proportionate balance between market, sustainable development, food safety and consumers' protection.

作者:Formici, Giulia
期刊:BIOLAW JOURNAL-RIVISTA DI BIODIRITTO
出版月(日)年:
卷(期),頁碼:2020(2), 67-87
DOI:
2 Trade in fisheries services under the WTO and GATS framework

This paper studies how fisheries services are classified in the World Trade Organization (WTO) framework for trade in services and discusses the potential impact of unclear classifications. The WTO plays a key role in regulation and assessment in the area of trade in services, mainly due to the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which contains the only set of multilateral rules managing such trade internationally. The purpose of GATS is to create a credible and reliable system of international trade rules that ensures fair treatment of all participants. Through negotiations, individual countries establish commitments to providemarket accessand limitingnational treatmentin various service sectors. During such negotiations, the classification of services is a prerequisite to ensure unambiguous and comparable commitments. However, the classification list used by the WTO, namely the W/120, is based on, and corresponds to, old versions of other classification lists, leading to unclear classifications. This lack of clarity in sectoral classifications makes policy analysis unnecessarily difficult and creates a risk that trade agreements may be interpreted differently by different parties.

作者:Will, Emma; Pettersson, Maria; Stage, Jesper
期刊:NATURAL RESOURCES FORUM
出版月(日)年:May, 2020
卷(期),頁碼:44(2), 161-175.
DOI:10.1111/1477-8947.12199
3 Biological control chance and limitation within integrated pest management program in Afghanistan

Integrated pest management (IPM) has recognized as a sustainable method for pest prevention, monitoring, and control. The purpose of this review article focused on biological control potential and challenges in Afghanistan. Biological control is beginning to increase in Afghanistan, in large part due to the establishment of graduate studies in entomology in 2008. Afghan farmers have restricted knowledge about agrochemicals and mostly use a few conventional chemical pesticides and fertilizers. The development and registration of biological agents as an alternative is a more recent movement. Only a single parasitoid agent and three microbial products were registered or pending registration for commercial use on various crops. Products based on Trichogramma brassicae (Bezdenko 1968) for lepidopteran pests, Trichoderma viride against soil-borne pathogens including Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Fusarium species are most widely spread. Also, T. viride, Cydia pomonella granulovirus, and Helicoverpa zea nucleopolyhedrovirus registered in 2015. Pesticide registration is the responsibility of the Afghan Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock, with the assistance of the Pesticides Division of Plant Protection and Quarantine Department in coordination with the Ministry of Public Health. The pesticide management board of the National Environmental Protection Agency has not yet signed the membership of the World Trade Organization (WTO) or the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). Currently, only one foreign company, the National Horticulture and Livestock Project (NHLP), produces microbial pesticides. However, it promised that two more other companies, the Center for Agricultural Bioscience International and the Afghanistan Agriculture Inputs Projects, will start production shortly. This is a review of the brief history of biological control of pests, with a view on current challenges of pest control practices as well the status of the market and the registration procedures for biocontrol agents, along with challenges and opportunities for the development of biocontrol in Afghanistan.

作者:Falahzadah, Mohammad Hussain; Karimi, Javad; Gaugler, Randy
期刊:EGYPTIAN JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL
出版月(日)年:Jul., 2020
卷(期),頁碼:30(1)
DOI:10.1186/s41938-020-00264-7
4 Changes in alcoholic beverage preference and consumption in Taiwan following accession to the World Trade Organization

Background and Aims Given the growing concerns that international trade agreements may increase the supply of health-harming commodities, including alcohol, this study aimed to investigate the changes in alcoholic beverage preference and consumption after Taiwan's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Design A before-and-after comparison analysis using data from two waves (1993-1996 and 2005-2008) of the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT), before and after Taiwan's accession to the WTO in 2002. Setting Taiwan. Participants A total of 5031 and 2910 participants aged 19 years or older in NAHSIT 1993-1996 and 2005-2008, respectively. Measurements Alcohol measures included beverage-specific preference, mean daily ethanol consumption, and heavy drinking. Logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence rate ratios and rate differences of beverage preferences between the two waves and the risk ratios of heavy drinking associated with different beverage preferences. Findings A reduced prevalence rate of drinkers who preferred rice spirits (prevalence rate ratio [PRR] = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.24, 0.91) and Asian wine (PRR = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.29) was found in contrast to an increase in the preference for fruit wine (PRR = 2.90; 95% CI = 1.75, 4.79); the preference for Asian spirits showed a non-significant increase (PRR = 1.63; 95% CI = 0.88, 3.02). Similarly, the mean daily ethanol consumption decreased for Asian wine and increased for Asian spirits. Compared with beer, an increased risk of heavy drinking was associated with rice spirits (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 3.30; 95% CI = 1.68, 6.47) and Asian spirits (aRR = 2.64; 95% CI = 1.38, 5.01). Conclusions After Taiwan became a member of the World Trade Organization and abolished its alcohol monopoly in 2002, the pattern of alcoholic beverage preference changed markedly, including a decrease in drinkers who preferred rice spirits and Asian wine (53% and 89% decrease, respectively) and an increase in drinkers who preferred fruit wine and Asian spirits (2.9-fold and 1.6-fold increase, respectively).

作者:Chen, Cheng-Che; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Chang, Shu-Sen
期刊:ADDICTION
出版月(日)年:Jul., 2020
卷(期),頁碼:
DOI:10.1111/add.15184
5 Reglobalizing trade: progressive global governance in an age of uncertainty

 In this article we explore what a programme of 'reglobalization' could look like for the governance of global trade. Our focus is on the centrepiece of the current commercial order, the World Trade Organization (WTO). Our aim is to illustrate the potential value of a reformulated WTO not just for commercial relations globally but also for other areas of social concern. We seek to be both practical and challenging. We seek to be practical by establishing what a programme of WTO reform might look like in the near-to-medium term, including changes to the negotiating process and opening up the WTO to non-state actors. We seek to be challenging by setting the transformation of global trade governance within the context of a thorough process of reglobalization wherein the primary public mechanisms of global governance are reoriented towards the delivery of progressive social and environmental outcomes.

作者:Scott, James; Wilkinson, Rorden
期刊:GLOBALIZATIONS
出版月(日)年:Jun., 2020
卷(期),頁碼:
DOI:10.1080/14747731.2020.1779965
6 A necessary reform of agriculture market access rules

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate by text and empirical facts, the need to reform the rules in force. Design/methodology/approach This study confronts current standards with empirical facts. To do this, it is postulated that even though current market access standards are better that the Gatt 1947 rules, they leave the possibility for some members to hijack them to eventually increase their protection effective tariff. Findings Market access standards for agricultural products should be reformed because of their asymmetry. To put an end to this asymmetry, these standards should be rebalanced. This is precisely the challenge of the current multilateral negotiations. Originality/value Unlike the studies conducted on this subject (to my knowledge), which are mainly based on economic or political science methods, this analysis is essentially based on legal reasoning law.

作者:Eba Nguema, Ismaelline
期刊:JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW AND POLICY
出版月(日)年:Jun., 2020
卷(期),頁碼:
DOI:10.1108/JITLP-06-2019-0030
7 Multilateral Trade Bargaining: A First Look at the GATT Bargaining Records

This paper empirically examines recently declassified tariff bargaining data from the GATT/WTO. Focusing on the Torquay Round (1950-1951), we document stylized facts about these interconnected high-stakes international negotiations that suggest a lack of strategic behavior among the participating governments and an important multilateral element to the bilateral bargains. We suggest that these features can be understood as emerging from a tariff bargaining forum that emphasizes the GATT pillars of MFN and multilateral reciprocity, and we offer evidence that the relaxation of strict bilateral reciprocity facilitated by the GATT multilateral bargaining forum was important to the success of the GATT approach.

作者:Bagwell, Kyle; Staiger, Robert W.; Yurukoglu, Ali
期刊:AMERICAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL-APPLIED ECONOMICS
出版月(日)年:Jul., 2020
卷(期),頁碼:12(3), 72-105
DOI:10.1257/app.20170574
8 Trade policy space and foreign direct investment inflows

Purpose This study aims to use a quantitative measure of trade policy space to investigate empirically whether trade policy space influences foreign direct investment (FDI) flows to countries. Design/methodology/approach The empirical analysis covers an unbalanced panel data set of 158 countries, over the period 1995-2015 and uses the two-step system generalized methods of moments approach. Findings The results suggest that the impact of trade policy space on FDI inflows is positive and increases as countries enjoy greater trade policy space. Furthermore, advanced economies tend to experience a higher positive impact of trade policy space on FDI inflows than less advanced economies. Research limitations/implications These findings highlight the relevance of trade policy space for countries' FDI inflows. Practical implications The analysis shows that non-trade related constraints to trade policy could reduce trade policy space and adversely influence FDI inflows, which are critical for countries' economic growth and development. Originality/value To the best of the knowledge, this topic has not been addressed in the literature.

作者:Gnangnon, Sena Kimm
期刊:REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS AND STRATEGY
出版月(日)年:Jun., 2020
卷(期),頁碼:
DOI:10.1108/RIBS-05-2019-0056
9 Taking Cultural Goods Seriously: Geographical Indications and the Renegotiation Strategies for the Korea-EU FTA

Given the possible renegotiations of the Korea-European Union FTA, this study focuses on the geographical indications (GIs) system included under the Korea-EU FTA and proposes a strategy for Korea to utilize GIs effectively. GIs have been gaining greater importance as a way to safeguard cultural goods in the global trade market against the impact of globalization. For Korea to utilize GIs to its advantage, the EU's strategy during the Korea-EU FTA negotiations can be a useful reference. That strategy is one that is centered on the protection of the EU's GI products in other countries, rather than in the Korean market. This 'roundabout strategy' of the EU is one which Korea can apply in order to realize its goal to differentiate its own products from those made by its neighboring countries, Japan and China. The lesson Korea can learn from the EU's roundabout strategy is that GIs based on locality and traditions can not only play a role as a source of potential economic revenues but also as an effective assertion of national cultural identities which are often overshadowed by the prominence of the larger region.

 

作者:Park, SunHee
期刊:GLOBAL POLICY
出版月(日)年:Jun., 2020
卷(期),頁碼:11(2), 23-30
DOI:10.1111/1758-5899.12820
10 Politicized Sustainability and Agricultural Policy: Comparing Norm Understandings of International Organizations

The article connects research on politicization, policy change and policy autonomy, and critical constructivist norm research. It asks how the politicized global norm cluster of sustainability impacts international organizations' (IOs) agricultural policies. The qualitative comparative case study analysis shows that the FAO, UNEP and WTO react to politicized sustainability but pursue different norm interpretations and prioritizations of agricultural approaches. The different understandings are explained with institutional factors (policy autonomy and reflective capacities) that channel norm interpretations and prioritizations of agricultural approaches. The article concludes that politicization is necessary but not sufficient to explain IOs' norm understandings and policies towards sustainable agriculture.

作者:Breitmeier, Helmut; Schwindenhammer, Sandra; Checa, Andres; Manderbach, Jacob; Tanzer, Magdalena
期刊:JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE POLICY ANALYSIS
出版月(日)年:Jun., 2020
卷(期),頁碼:
DOI:10.1080/13876988.2020.1769480
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