1 Poland and global value chains at the beginning of the 21st century – An opportunity or a threat?

This article aims to examine and present trade relations in global value chains (GVCs) and their impact on Polish trade, emphasizing Poland's ability to react to rapid changes in the global economy, as in the case of the COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, the author proposed a two-stage study. The first stage focuses on analyzing selected indexes describing the Polish share and position in GVCs against the background of the European Union (EU) and OECD countries. The second stage is related to the analysis of the latest economic trade data and the reaction of Poland, the EU, and OECD to changes in international trade in 2020 and 2021 in the context of GVC. The study uses data from the OECD and WTO Trade in Value Added Database and the Eurostat Database. The relatively quick adaptation of Poland to the world's standards indicates great possibilities for adaptation of the Polish economy. The share of foreign value added in Polish exports was consistent with global trends. The export orientation of Polish production increased during the analyzed period, proving Poland's deep commitment to global production chains. Despite a similar decline in import and export in the first months of 2020, as in the OECD and the EU26, the growth dynamics in the following months were higher in Poland. Many industries in Poland are highly dependent on the smooth operation of GVCs. At the same time, the service sector is gaining importance, and its share in exports is systematically growing. The highly flexible nature of Poland's international trade allowed it to reduce the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on its economy.

作者:Nacewska-Twardowska, Aleksandra
2 'Where you live should not determine whether you live'. Global justice and the distribution of COVID-19 vaccines

In 2020, the world faced a new pandemic. The corona infection hit an unprepared world, and there were no medicines and no vaccines against it. Research to develop vaccines started immediately and in a remarkably short time several vaccines became available. However, despite initiatives for global equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines, vaccines have so far become accessible only to a minor part of the world population. In this article, I discuss the global distribution of COVID-19 vaccines from an ethical point of view. I reflect on what ethical principles should guide the global distribution of vaccines and what global justice and international solidarity imply for vaccine distribution and I analyse the reasons for states to prioritize their own citizens. My focus is on ethical reasons for and against 'vaccine nationalism' and 'vaccine cosmopolitanism.' My point of departure is the appeal for international solidarity from several world leaders, arguing that 'Where you live should not determine whether you live'. I discuss the COVAX initiative to enable a global vaccination and the proposal from India and South Africa to the World Trade Organization to temporarily waive patent rights for vaccines. In the final section, I argue for global vaccine sufficientarianism, which is a modified version of vaccine cosmopolitanism.

作者:Collste, Goran
3 Has the Spread of African Swine Fever in the European Union Been Impacted by COVID-19 Pandemic?

African Swine Fever (ASF) is a contagious viral disease of domestic and wild pigs, listed as notifiable by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). It causes substantial economic losses to pig farming in the affected countries, with consequent enormous damage to livestock production due to mortality of the animals, and to the restrictions on national and international trade in pigs and derivative products that the presence of the infection implies. To prevent or reduce the risk of ASF introduction, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the OIE recommend preventive and control measures, such as the ban of live swine and their products traded from ASF-affected to ASF-free countries or zones. The current spread of ASF into Europe poses a serious risk to the industrialized and small-scale pig sector, as demonstrated by observed cases in different EU areas. In this paper the authors discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on ASF, and the indirect effects including the impact on animal health and disease management. They suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected animal disease surveillance control. ASF requires rapid responses and continuous monitoring to identify outbreaks and prevent their spread, and both aspects may have been greatly reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic.

作者:Biondi, Vito; Monti, Salvatore; Landi, Alessandra; Pugliese, Michela; Zema, Elena; Passantino, Annamaria
4 The Curious Case of the Missing Chinese Emissions

This paper characterizes the growth of sulfur dioxide emissions among Chinese manufacturers during the WTO-accession period. By failing to account for contemporaneous changes in markups, we demonstrate that standard emissions analyses overemphasize within-firm reductions in emissions intensity, while undervaluing the role of resource reallocation across firms. We derive an unbiased decomposition of aggregate emissions and find that emissions increased nearly one for one with total production. Although improved technology mitigated emissions growth by 18%-21% between 2000 and 2005, these gains were completely offset by resource reallocation toward dirty producers over the same time frame. Our findings imply that lowering future emissions growth among Chinese manufacturers may require lowering aggregate manufacturing production or fundamentally changing Chinese industrial composition toward cleaner industries.

作者:Rodrigue, Joel; Sheng, Dan; Tan, Yong
出版月(日)年:Jul.(1), 2022
卷(期),頁碼:9(4), 755-805
5 Wither the Trade Regime?

Democratic governance, liberal values, and the open trading regime are facing interconnected existential challenges. For most of the post-WWII period, they were "legs to the same stool." Today, the connections among the three have frayed, and this has implications for the future of the liberal international economic order. While the trade regime successfully incorporated smaller autocratic states, the rise of China and increasing tension among signatories to the WTO has challenged the rule-based trading system. This essay argues that even with these divisions among the memberships, all trading nations, including China, need the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)/WTO. Trade requires market predictability; exporters and their home governments require some means to adjudicate conflict. The GATT/WTO remains the best, and perhaps the only, organization that can facilitate such coordination and finesse the changing nature of the international system to assure an open world economy.

作者:Goldstein, Judith
出版月(日)年:May.(13), 2022
6 Does bank competition inhibit the formation of zombie firms?

The intensified competition in China's banking industry is an important embodiment of gradual financial reform. Based on the Annual Survey of Industrial Enterprise Database, we find that the probability of forming zombie firms decreases by 0.48% with 1% increase of city-level bank competition. The result still holds when we introduce an IV based on the number the bank branches in 1937 when China's bank industry was at the boom before the World War II. The underlying mechanism is that the financial expense ratio of zombie firms increases by 0.17% with 1% increase of bank competition, which supports the "competition-stability" view. We also introduce the exogenous shock event of China's WTO accession and proxy variable from the survey on foreign banks in 1935 when China's bank industry was at the boom before the war, and the results are still robust.

作者:Zhang, Xiaoqian; Huang, Bin
出版月(日)年:Jul., 2022
卷(期),頁碼:80, 1045-1060
7 Trade policy uncertainty and foreign direct investment: Evidence from China's WTO accession

This paper investigates whether and how trade policy uncertainty (TPU) in major economies affects global foreign direct investment (FDI) flows. Using China's World Trade Organization accession as a quasi-natural experiment, we find that China's FDI inflows increased more in industries experiencing greater TPU reduction in the US market (China's largest export destination market) than those in industries experiencing less reduction in TPU. We also find that TPU reduction is associated with larger increases in FDI inflows in industries with higher export intensities, suggesting that TPU reduction induces multinational firms to serve the US market through building and expanding affiliates in China. The findings suggest that TPU reduction in major economies would help global FDI flows to recover from the current pandemic. (c) 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

作者:Bao, Xiaohua; Deng, Jianpeng; Sun, Haoyu; Sun, Jin
出版月(日)年:Jul., 2022
8 WTO Dispute Settlement: Crown Jewel or Costume Jewelry?

The dispute settlement system of the World Trade Organization (WTO) knew considerable success in its early years, being described as the WTO's crown jewel. In recent years, the jewel has become tarnished. Its principal actor - the Appellate Body - is no longer functioning, and the practice of the membership has been to appeal almost all new panel reports, thereby consigning them to a legal limbo from which they seem unlikely to ever emerge. This paper briefly reviews the record of the WTO dispute settlement system, considers the problems that led to its current state and evaluates various proposals that have been made to reinvigorate the system.

作者:Davey, William J.
出版月(日)年:Mar., 2022
9 Cloud services and government digital sovereignty in Australia and beyond

The Australian government has expressed concerns about various 'data challenges' confronting the public sector. Similar concerns are reverberating throughout the globe. Other governments continue to voice and act upon their own apprehensions about the threats posed to public and private society by attenuations to their nations' 'digital sovereignty'. This article critically examines the Australian government's potential justifications, particularly under international trade law, for introducing digital sovereignty policies explicitly targeted at protecting government cyber systems and government data. We explore the risks and vulnerabilities of hosting government data offshore or with foreign cloud providers onshore. We find that Australia has sufficient latitude under its existing trade commitments, and within its current procurement framework, to introduce legitimate and proportionate digital sovereignty measures for the public sector.

作者:Mitchell, Andrew D.; Samlidis, Theodore
出版月(日)年:Mar.(12), 2022
卷(期),頁碼:29(4), 364-394

Given the increasing importance of the digital economy, competition for digital technologies and solutions, as well as the contest to influence norms, standards, and regulatory mechanisms, is escalating. This influence is distributed unevenly-digitalization leaders, primarily the key Group of 20 (G20) members, gain significant advantages, increasing their potential for shaping digital regulation through the consistent inclusion of domestic standards and norms in the documents of multilateral institutions, including the G20, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the United Nations (UN) At the same time, Russia's impact on the most important aspects of digital economy regulation at the global and regional level is currently limited.

   The article presents an assessment of the influence wielded by the leading G20 members (the U.S., Canada, the UK, the European Union (EU), Japan, Korea, China and India) on the digital economy's development and regulation. This assessment serves as the basis for recommendations on Russia's approaches to the specific aspects of regulation (digital infrastructure development, cybersecurity, regulating digital platforms, regulating global stablecoins and central bank digital currencies (CBDCs), data governance, and artificial intelligence (AI) policies) at the national level, as well as its engagement in the G20 and other multilateral institutions.

   The analysis indicates that the leading countries affect the digital economy mainly by determining conditions for activities in their domestic digital markets and participating in shaping new global standards and rules. In the areas of digital infrastructure development, cybersecurity, and data governance, there are growing contradictions between the approaches of the U.S., the UK, Japan and partly the EU and Korea on the one hand, and Russia, China and India on the other. Recommendations in these areas are related to strengthening coordination within the BRICS group of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa to develop common positions and collectively promote them in the G20 and other multilateral institutions. The main recommendations on other regulatory aspects include using the experience of digitalization leaders to minimize the risks posed by competitors and to strengthen Russian positions in the global digital economy.

作者:Shelepov, A.