#篇名摘要出處資訊
1 Investigating the four-way linkages between energy consumption, CO2 Emissions, exports, and economic growth: new evidence from SAARC economies

This paper examines the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, and their mutual influences on CO2 emissions and exports in four SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) member countries, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, from 1971 to 2014. We show that energy consumption and exports drive economic growth in the long run while CO2 emissions stifle it. In addition, the study provides strong evidence of short-run links between GDP per capita and energy, CO2 emissions and energy consumption, and GDP per capita and CO2 emissions. These results suggest that Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka are specializing in polluting industries and following an unsustainable development trend. This economic strategy threatens not only the ecological system but also the national wealth of these countries, which requires profound actions from policymakers to improve it.

作者:Ul Habib, Musavir; Tiba, Sofien; Gaies, Brahim; Jahmane, Abderrahman
期刊:ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS AND POLICY STUDIES
出版月(日)年:Sep., 2022
卷(期),頁碼:
DOI:10.1007/s10018-022-00351-z
2 Risk preference and willingness to participate in the futures market: Evidence from cotton and jujube enterprises of China

Since the instability and uncertainty are mounting on the international landscape, it is urgent and necessary to explore the risk awareness and risk management capabilities of leading agricultural enterprises in China. Based on a survey of 219 enterprises, we build a logit model and estimate the impact of risk preference and price risk perception of leading cotton and jujube enterprises on their willingness to participate in the futures market. We further explore the moderating effect of the price risk perception on the relationship between risk preference and willingness to participate in the futures market. Results show that the risk preference and price risk perception of leading enterprises have a significant positive impact on their willingness to participate in the futures market, and the proportion of the mediating effect in the total effect is calculated to be 35.1%. Therefore, risk management instruments suitable for various types of leading enterprises and segmentation of training courses are suggested to optimize the effectiveness of China's cotton and jujube futures market.

作者:Cheng, An; Han, Xinru; Ahmad, Mahmood
期刊:FRONTIERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
出版月(日)年:Aug(29)., 2022
卷(期),頁碼:10
DOI:10.3389/fenvs.2022.978557
3 R&D subsidies in permissive and restrictive environment: Evidence from Korea

This paper investigates the extent to which a regulatory environment for R&D subsidies shapes the magnitude and direction of R&D subsidies set by a government and consequent innovation paths. When the WTO adopted a permissive regulatory environment, we find that the Korean government increased R&D subsidies significantly (89.21%) and selectively so for firms and industries with higher returns. Recipient firms conducted less basic research and more development research. Improvements in innovations were mostly incremental and minor. However, such changes did not persist once the WTO switched to a restrictive regulatory environment. Our findings show that the regulatory environment imposed by the WTO largely affects allocation of R&D subsidies and suggest that a permissive regulatory environment may not necessarily maximize the potential for breakthrough innovations.

作者:Koh, Yumi; Lee, Gea M.
期刊:RESEARCH POLICY
出版月(日)年:Jan., 2023
卷(期),頁碼:52(1)
DOI:10.1016/j.respol.2022.104620
4 Climate clubs and carbon border adjustments: a review

Nobel Memorial Prize winner William Nordhaus and others have proposed a climate club as the ultimate climate-mitigation measure. Meanwhile, the European Union (EU) is pressing on with the creation of a carbon border adjustment mechanism (CBAM) that would put pressure on the rest of the world to introduce the same level of carbon pricing as the EU. There are strong linkages between the concepts of a climate club and CBAM. However, the EU long studiously avoided referring to a climate club in its official communication, and the relationship between the two concepts remains unclear. This study seeks to clarify the relationship through a systematic review of the climate club and carbon border adjustment literatures to highlight synergies and contradictions, reduce fragmentation, and increase actionability. A tailored Boolean search string is used to extract relevant literature, which is then categorised along eight parameters. The VOSviewer network analysis and visualisation software is used to examine cross-citations and bibliographic coupling. The review finds that there are connections between the objectives, methods and concerns of the two branches of literature but that there are divergences in terms of conceptual roots, disciplinary frames and the views that authors take of CBAM/a climate club. Only 7% of the studies relate to international relations theory. Several large emitters, geopolitically important states and developing countries are ignored by the literature. Although the cooperation/resistance of Asian countries will be decisive for the fate of any climate club initiative, only 15% of authors are based in Asia and Western scholars dominate the field. A five-pronged research agenda is proposed to address the identified gaps: enhanced interaction between the fields of research, coverage of a broader range of countries, additional analysis by Asia-based researchers, more contributions from political science and international relations scholars and further work on how to calculate tariffs.

作者:Overland, Indra; Huda, Mirza Sadaqat
期刊:ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS
出版月(日)年:Sep(1)., 2022
卷(期),頁碼:17(9)
DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/ac8da8
5 Emotion Classification Method of Financial News Based on Artificial Intelligence

With the continuous development of economy, the economic development model is constantly changing. Especially since China's entry into WTO, the scale of economic development has reached a new height. The continuous development of economy makes the financial news module evolve towards specialization. However, with the emergence of Internet of Things technology, a large number of data appear in the network, which brings some difficulties to the classification and analysis of data economy. Emotion classification refers to the complexity and diversity of people's emotions. It can be classified from different observation angles. Because the core content of emotion is value, human emotion should be classified mainly according to the different characteristics of the movement and change of value relationship it reflects. This paper is aimed at studying the emotional classification method of financial news based on artificial intelligence and expecting to use artificial intelligence technology and classification method to classify financial news. It allows more people to know the implied information of financial information and promotes economic development. Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science. It attempts to understand the essence of intelligence and produce a new intelligent machine that can respond in a similar way to human intelligence. This paper mainly summarizes the topic selection characteristics and subdivision topic selection characteristics of financial data news through quantitative and qualitative methods and explores the classification of financial news. In this paper, a simplified classification algorithm based on convolution function is proposed for the classification of traditional financial news networks. The experimental results show that the classification accuracy of artificial intelligence method is improved by 4% compared with the traditional emotion classification method, and the classification accuracy of positive emotion is lower than that of negative emotion by 2%.

作者:Li, JieYing; Zheng, ChenXi
期刊:WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS & MOBILE COMPUTING
出版月(日)年:Aug(18)., 2022
卷(期),頁碼:2022
DOI:10.1155/2022/8047582
6 Conflict or Cooperation: A Survival Analysis of the Relationship between Regional Trade Agreements and Military Conflict

This paper examines the timing behind the decision of countries to enter into regional trade agreements or interstate military conflicts, considering these two potential actions as substitute strategies. Using bilateral data from 1950 to 2014, I employ survival analysis to examine the factors that determine the likelihood of two countries entering into a regional trade agreement or a military conflict at any point in time. Historical or recent wars are posited to raise the gains from trade and therefore increase the likelihood that two countries choose to join the same trade agreement. On the other side, the existence of a strong trade relationship may raise the opportunity cost of entering into a conflict; bilateral trade flows and common membership in a regional trade agreement are posited to impact the likelihood of conflict. Other explanatory variables that affect the likelihood of either a common trade agreement or a military conflict include economic size, measured as the product of and the difference in the two countries' GDPs; level of development, measured as the product of and the difference in the two countries' per-capita GDPs; geography, measured by distance, contiguity, landlocked status, and island status; institutional linkages, represented by a common language, a colonial relationship, or a common legal origin; and political variables, including WTO membership, democracy, military alliances, and being a major oil producer. Results show that economic, geographic, institutional, and political variables all influence the probability that two countries enter into a conflict or join the same regional trade agreement.

作者:Cyrus, Teresa L.
期刊:PEACE ECONOMICS PEACE SCIENCE AND PUBLIC POLICY
出版月(日)年:Sep., 2022
卷(期),頁碼:
DOI:10.1515/peps-2022-0012
7 Inventory Management with Trade Policy Uncertainty

This paper develops a theoretical model to describe how exporting firms manage their inventory stocks in response to an exogenous trade policy uncertainty shock. Using firm-level data from China Industrial Enterprise Database and China Customs Database on inventory and exports over the period around China's WTO accession, we show that a reduction in trade policy uncertainty significantly increased exporting firms' inventory holdings. The result was robust to various robustness checks. This effect was found to be stronger for private and foreign firms than state-owned enterprises and mainly driven by firms from the coastal region. We also found that the reduction in trade policy uncertainty increased the frequency and the average volume of export transactions, and that this was the mechanism behind the effect. This paper helps to understand exporting firms' optimal inventory problem arising from trade-policy uncertainty and shocks.

作者:Zhao, Xiaotao; Chen, Xiaoping
期刊:CHINA & WORLD ECONOMY
出版月(日)年:Sep., 2022
卷(期),頁碼:30(5), 128-153
DOI:10.1111/cwe.12440
8 An asymmetric impact analysis of the exchange rate volatility on commodity trade between the US and China

This paper uses an asymmetric ARDL model to examine the influence of real exchange rate volatility on trade flows between the United States and China from January 2003 to June 2020, with the top twelve sectors of disaggregated data being employed. The results show that nonlinear adjustment of the volatility has a more significant outcome than the ARDL model on both U.S. exports to and imports from China in the long-run, while increased volatility will boost both U.S. imports from and exports to China. Besides, it shows that China benefits from U.S.-China trade on the selected sectors after joining the WTO more than the United States.

作者:Lee, Chien-Hui; Li, Shu-Hui; Lee, Jen-Yu
期刊:INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF ECONOMICS & FINANCE
出版月(日)年:Nov., 2022
卷(期),頁碼:82, 399-415
DOI:10.1016/j.iref.2022.07.002
9 Korea's trade policy and performance in turbulent times

This paper is a complementary study to gain a better understanding of Korea's recent trade performance in the context of the World Trade Organisation's (WTO) 2021 Trade Policy Review (TPR) on Korea. The TPR noted that Korea's external economic activities performed relatively well because Korea was able to limit the negative impact of recent turbulence in the global trade environment through enhanced regional cooperation and integration and reform since the East Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s. In addition, Korea's advanced information and communication technology has helped to mitigate external influences emanating from the global turmoil in the era of digitalisation. Evaluating Korea's recent trade performance, we found export's declining contribution to output growth and increasing vulnerability to external influences. Continuous efforts to widen and deepen regional cooperation together with efforts to rebalance value-creation activities are required.

作者:Kang, Moonsung, Park, Innwon
期刊:WORLD ECONOMY
出版月(日)年:Sep., 2022
卷(期),頁碼:
DOI:10.1111/twec.13331
10 Time to Reconsider Direct Applicability of WTO Law in ECJ Jurisprudence?-The Three Arguments from Commission v Hungary (Higher education)

In Commission v Hungary (Higher education), the ECJ applied World Trade Organization (WTO) law to conclude that Hungarian law was inconsistent with EU law, as the EU could be held liable under WTO law for potential violations of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). In establishing its own jurisdiction, the ECJ referred to WTO law, state liability, and the principle of pacta sunt servanda. The question is whether the legal reasoning by the ECJ should extend further. The ECJ has generally held a strict line against direct applicability of WTO law to review EU secondary law with only few exceptions. This article argues that with the legal reasoning by the ECJ in Commission v Hungary (Higher education), it is time to reconsider the general rejection of direct applicability of WTO law to review EU secondary law.

作者:Andersen, Henrik
期刊:EUROPEAN LAW REVIEW
出版月(日)年:Aug., 2022
卷(期),頁碼:2022(4), 550-567
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